Margarine's history began in France, where at the early 19th century the price of butter sharply rose. In addition, the butter would quickly deteriote and did not match the needs of the army and the urban population. Napoleon III offered a prize for the discovery of butter substitute. The result of research in 1866 was the product, registered in France in 1869, named margarine, for which the French scientist Hippolyte Mege-Mouries got the prize. The name "margarine" comes from the Greek word margaron, which means "pearl". Much earlier, in 1813, researcher Chevreul, who later became Hippolyte Mege-Mouries's teacher, obtained a fat fraction from beef fat, which flickered like a gem. He called it oleomargarine. Hippolyte Mege-Mouries based his own studies on their research of his teacher and created margarine from beef fat. By blending oleomargarine with skimmed milk he produced a pleasant butter substitute.
Canola oil is extracted from Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L. and Brassica juncea L. varieties of canola seed with low amounts of erucic acid (rapeseed oil – low erucic acid, low erucic acid turnip rape oil, Low erucuc acid colza oil, canola oil). The oil is obtained by hot – pressing and solvent extraction methods. This produces a green canola oil. In order to make it suitable for use in the manufacturing of margarine, it is processed (refined). Refining of the oil removes solid parts (rape seed remains), chemicals that affect characteristic odor, dark color and shelf life of canola oil. After refining pale yellow, odorless oil is obtained.
Palm oil is made from recycled African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit. Palm oil has a deep orange and yellow color because of a high carotene content. It has a slightly sweet taste, and smells like fruit. In the tropical climate it is liquid, in Lithuania, at room temperature, it hardens, and becomes similar to margarine. The oil contains a lot of carotenoids (provitamin A). Palm oil is the most abundant natural source of vitamin E (tocopherol). The oil is also rich in bioactive substances (tocotrienols). Palm oil is relatively resistant to oxidation even at high temperatures.
Palm Kernel Oil – Oil palm fruit are two different types of oil source. Palm oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and palm kernel oil – from fruit kernel. The core consists about 45 – 48% of palm nuts. After sterilization, the palm nuts are separated from the fruit. After separation nuts are dried, crushed and separated from the walls of the nucleus. Palm oil and palm kernel oil significantly differ in their characteristics, even though some are derived from a single plant. Palm kernel oil has a light color, sweet taste, mild odor. It has the ability to melt quickly by heating. It is also stable and does not deteriorate quickly.
Coconut oil is derived from coconut palm nuts. It has a high content of medium length fatty acids, because of which the oil is very different from other types of oils and fats. Oil melts quickly when it is heated. At room temperature (21.10 °C) it is a brittle solid fat, but quickly and completely melts at temperatures below 36 °C. Raw coconut oil changes color from light yellow to greenish–yellow, and the recycled oil is pale yellow in color. It has a sweetish taste. Characteristics are similar to palm kernel oil. It also has a very small number of unsaturated fatty acids, is stable and slowly decaying.
Linseed oil. Flax belongs to Linaceae family. Flax seeds come from Eurasia. Seeds are small, reddish-brown. The ones used for food must be clean, dry and of good quality. By pressing flax seeds (linseed) seed oil is obtained, is sometimes referred to as the flax oil. Linseed oil has a dark yellow color and a specific taste and smell. Flax seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated, essential fatty acids (w -3 and w -6) (PUFA), vitamins, enzymes, phospholipids, phytosterols, natural antioxidants, fiber and minerals and other biologically active components. By interactacting with each other they mutually regenerates, supplements, while maintaining balance of antioxidant protection. Irreplaceable fatty acids in linseed oil in the body are converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like substances), which are important in regulating hormones and steroid materials production, pressure in the blood vessels and in the eyes, in platelet formation, water retention, inflammatory processes, and nerve impulse transmission. Linseed oil, thanks to its complex opperation of biologically active substances, stimulates the digestive tract, speeds up muscle recovery after exercise, the body gives a lot of energy and increases endurance, speed up recovery process and facilitates the well-being of obese people while loosing weight, i.e. stimulates fat burning and speeds up metabolism process; enhances the absorption of calcium, accelerates the production of insulin, healing of bruises, strengthens nails, improves eyesight and color vision, liver function, may stop the development of some forms of tumors and facilitate the development of asthma disease.
Salt. The effect of this preservative is based on the fact that it reduces water activity. Salt has an effect that is the same as the water removal system, so this effect is interpreted as "chemical drying". Salt has been long used to preserve fish, meat, butter, cheese and vegetables. Salt in margarine is used as a preservative and as a flavoring.
Preservative: Potassium sorbate. Sorbic acid potassium salt. It is an organic salt with antioxidant properties. This salt is obtained by the synthesis of sorbic acid, a chemical process. Sorbic acid L–enantiomer is known as vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is necessary for collagen synthesis, tissue regeneration, is involved in some amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, and other materials metabolism, immune system activity, is important for blood vessels' wall integrity. Naturally found in mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) fruits. In low concentrations it acts as pro–oxidant – i.e., stops fat deterioration (bitterness felt in fat). It is a very effective mixture of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol. In liquid solutions, it particularly actively inactivates oxygen. Because of this feature it is possible to preserve the wine taste characteristics, the stability of the oil, keep fruit and vegetables from darkening.
Food colorant is the substance that gives color to food or refreshes it and has the components of natural foods and raw ingredients that are not normally used as a food or as a component of food. Colorant is a preparation obtained from food products and other natural raw materials, extracting the pigments with appropriate nutritional and aromatic components by physical or chemical means.
Beta-carotene – in human body betacarotene is a source of vitamin A and an antioxidant. It is found in carrots, corn grain, red palm oil. Both naturally and synthetically derived betacarotene is used for food coloring.
Flavourings – coordinated mix of 30, 50, sometimes more than 100, individual components. These components may be natural or identical to natural artificial flavorings. According to the aroma there are three groups of aromatic essences: a) natural flavoring; b) identical to natural flavorings; c) artificial flavorings; d) flavoring preparations; e) processed flavorings; f) smoke flavorings. Fragrances, including essences, are designed for food products, tobacco products and to flavour various blends of food additives. Flavoring substances are used to 50...200g/100kg per product. Fragrances (perfumes) can be in liquid and powder form.
Emulsifiers. Emulsifier is a nutrient that helps to form the emulsion and stabilizes it. Emulsion is a system consisting of two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed into small droplets in another... There are three types of emulsion: water in fat (W/F) (example – margarine), fat in water (F/W) (example – mayonnaise), and mixed, which can be both (W/F) and (F/W). Two types of emulsifiers are used in production of margarine: lecithin and mono and diglycerides of fatty acids. Lecithin is a mixture of various fractions of phospholipids. It is obtained during the extraction, using hexane from soybean, sunflower seeds. Lecithin protects the body from obesity, reduces fat accumulation in the body, lipids' (blood fat) oxidation and the amount of cholesterol, protects against atherosclerosis and other heart and vascular diseases.
Milk powder. Soluble skimmed milk powder is made from fresh milk, which has been pasteurized, evaporated and then dried using a speed–spray process. As a result, milk powder is quickly soluble in water. Especially widely used in margarine, mayonnaise and chocolate for soups, pies filling and sauces, as well as in ice cream, cakes, bread and other edible products' concentrate production.
Inulin is non–digestible carbohydrates of plant fibers – fructo–oligosaccharides, usually extracted from chicory root. It is digested in the stomach, but in the intestine inulin is metabolized by good bacteria. Therefore, inulin selectively stimulates the activity of the good bacteria and maintains the natural balance of the intestinal microflora. This is related to the positive properties of inulin intestinal function and general health. There is evidence that inulin may improve absorption of calcium and other minerals. When intestinal bacteria fermentates inulin, propionic acid is formed, which regulates metabolism of fats in liver, which may reduce the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. Inulin binds bile acids and helps to remove cholesterol from the gut. At higher doses, inulin fiber starts swelling and gives a feeling of satiety, attracts more water in the gut and increases intestinal motility, facilitate bowel movement.
Acidity regulator. Citric acid is found in every living organism, as it is part of metabolic key of all cells in the body. High concentrations are found in citrus fruits, kiwi, strawberries and other fruits. Citric acid has many functions – increases the number of antioxidant activity, but it is not itself an antioxidant. It is mainly used as an acidity regulator. Citric acid and citrates can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
Vitamins – organic compounds that consist of smaller molecules and are necessary for living organisms in order to maintain the vital condition, but that the body can not produce (synthesize), therefore, it must be ingested with food. Some vitamins (B group and vitamin K) are synthesized by intestinal bacteria, but is not enough for the body. Vitamins can be divided into two groups: soluble in water (B group vitamins) and soluble in fat (vitamins A, D, E, K). As a result, the food ration, which entirely has no fat, cannot be completely healthy.
Vitamin A is a group of fat–soluble substances with a similar chemical structure, the most important of which is retinol. Vitamin A provitamin (provitamin is a substance that is synthesized in the body into vitamin) is beta–carotene, which is used to produce vitamin A in the liver.
Vitamin A is in products of animal origin – fish oil, butter, egg yolk, cod liver, beef liver, milk, cream, sour cream, fermented cheese. Vitamin A is necessary for cells to grow and multiply. It ensures normal condition of epithelial tissues (skin and mucosa). Lack of vitamin A causes skin and mucous membrane to dry, skin cracks to appear, and reduces resistance to infections. Vitamin A and carotenes in tissues are converted to retinol,which is then converted to retinal. Retinal is important to maintain visual function.
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) is a group of fat-soluble similar materials, attributed to vitamins. Known forms – lamisterol (Vitamin D1), ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), dihydrotachisterol (Vitamin D4). In the body, the most important forms are ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol. Vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, regulates calcium and phosphorus intake in the intestine, helps to keep these elements in bones and teeth, prevents rachitis, arthritis and osteoporosis, participates in growth and maturation processes, more quickly removes toxic lead from the body, which is essential for healthy nervous system and the immune system. Natural sources of vitamin D include fish oil, beef and cod liver, caviar, eggs, butter, milk, cheese, egg yolk, meat, herring, salmon, eel. In the body, Vitamin D in formed in the presence of ultraviolet light.
Vitamin E is a very important vitamin and antioxidant, also known as tocopherol. The term derives from the Greek language, where one part of the word meant birth, while the other – help. Tocopherol improves blood circulation, is essential for tissue regeneration, benefits PMS syndrome and treatment of fibrotic chest diseases, is responsible for normal blood clotting, reduces blood pressure, prevents the development of cataracts, improves athletic accomplishments, eliminates leg cramps, supports the nervous system, strengthens the capillary walls, offers 25-50% reduction of the risk of heart disease, prevents the development of ischemic heart diseases and anemia, is important for placental development, slows down the aging process, improves immune function in elderly people, combats cigarette smoke toxins and other harmful substances, helps with Parkinson's disease. In 1997 it was proven that vitamin E facilitates Alzheimer's disease (a disease does not progress as quickly) and diabetes, and also has a positive effect on the immune system.
The main and the largest natural source of vitamin E is wheat germ oil. Less vitamin E is in linseed, sunflower, corn oil. A small amount of this vitamin can be found in nuts (almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts), green leafy vegetables, grains and legumes (beans), egg yolks, liver, milk, oatmeal, soybeans, oats and rosehip.
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